In order to treat diseases of the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and lymphatic circulation, the surgical specialty of "vascular surgery" uses medication therapy, minimally invasive catheter procedures, and surgical reconstruction. The other significant and essential veins and arteries of the body are now treated in this branch of surgery, which evolved from general and cardiac surgery. Endovascular and open surgical approaches are both used to treat vascular diseases.
The scope of the vascular surgeon's training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting the entire vascular system excludes the cerebral vasculature and coronaries. In order to manage acute vascular injury, control of bleeding, and safe exposure of vascular structures, vascular surgeons commonly collaborate with other medical specialists.