Surgery, focuses on conditions affecting the urinary tract and reproductive organs. Among the organs covered by the discipline of urology are the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urine bladder, urethra, and male reproductive systems (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis).
Due to their interdependence, issues with either the urinary or reproductive tracts typically affect the other. Thus, genitourinary disorders encompass a broad range of illnesses that are managed in urology. Congenital defects, traumatic damage, stress incontinence, kidney stones, bladder or prostate cancer, and other surgery conditions are treated in urology alongside medical conditions such benign prostatic hyperplasia and urinary tract infections.